According to “MedicalNewsToday”, some people around the world are born with extra fingers or extra toes. Some health experts may refer to this as a “malformation,” but may be beneficial to an individual.
A situation in which a person is given birth with extra toes and fingers is medically known as polydactyly.
The types of polydactyly include isolated polydactyly and syndromic polydactyly.
According to “Healthline”, some of the causes of polydactyly include.
1. Isolated or nonsyndromic polydactyly
Isolated polydactyly is mostly transferred from a parent to a child via genes. This is called autosomal dominant inheritance.
A review of polydactyly genetics recommends that inherited mutations in genes and their signalling pathways affect the embryo’s growing limbs during weeks 4 through 8.
Nonfamilial Cases Of Isolated Polydactyly.
There’s some proof that environmental factors play a role in isolated polydactyly cases that aren’t familiar. A study of children with isolated preaxial polydactyly that wasn’t familial showed that it occurred more frequently in:
• children of women with high blood sugar.
• children with lower birth weights.
• children of lower birth order (for instance, first- or second-born).
• children whose fathers had lower levels of education.
• children whose mothers suffer from upper respiratory tract infections in the first three months of pregnancy.
• children whose mothers had epilepsy history.
• children who were exposed in embryo to thalidomide.
2. Syndromic polydactyly
As genetic technologies have improved, researchers have discovered more of the genes and mechanisms involved in polydactyly and its linked syndromes.
The syndromes are thought to be triggered by genetic mutations that affect the signalling pathways during the development of an embryo. Limb malformations are often linked with issues in other organs.